When we talk about dystopian fiction then it has to start with Utopian literature which was first introduced in 1516 with Sir Thomas More book, Utopia which presented an imagined ideally perfect place or state where everything is pleasant, where the citizens of the state are living in a perfect society free of sufferings and poverty.
Related: Dystopian Story Ideas
Later, this Utopian concept of Sir Thomas was responded with dystopian fiction, which showcases the opposite of Utopian philosophy and presented an imagined state where everything is unpleasant, where human life is full of disparities, suffering & hopelessness and surviving is often the central focus of the people of the dystopian state.
What is Dystopian Fiction?
Dystopian fiction novels are based on the subject of an imagined future world where dehumanizing, frightening & anarchist society prevails after going through an environmental disaster or a world war and humans struggle with anarchy, oppression, brutality, survival, etc.
- In dystopian fiction, the world is often presented under lawlessness (under no governmental control), or under the control of a single oppressive and hypocritical government, or some highly technologically advanced force.
- The dystopian genre is also speculative fiction like science fiction & fantasy and is used as a subgenre for both, as dystopian science fiction and dystopian fantasy fiction.
Common Themes in Dystopian Literature-
Below is the list of common themes in dystopian literature which appeared in most dystopian novels, books & stories-
1. Good vs. Evil
11. Social Class
15. Abuse of power
18. Poverty vs Wealth
20. Class struggle
5 Common Elements of Dystopian Fiction-
These are some common elements that you can find in dystopian fiction-
1. Governmental control
Government is one of the prominent elements in most of the work of dystopian fiction. The government is presented as a powerful and oppressive entity suppressing the society and state or even a no government scenario where anarchy prevails.
2. Technological control
An advanced technology controls society. Robots, computers, or some highly advance and scientific means are used to control society, place, or the character’s mind.
M.T Anderson’s Feed, showcases the world where people’s brains are controlled by a computer network called Feednet. Similar to the internet this network controls the citizens by connecting everyone’s brain through the network implemented through installed the feed into the brains of citizens.
Other Popular Examples-
- The Circle by David Eggers
- Brave New World by Aldous Huxley
- Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick
3. Environmental destruction
Showcasing the setting of a place inhabitable for humans often after destruction or the story of a probably upcoming disaster.
4. Loss of individualism
Showcasing the danger of conformity, loss of individualism presents a world where personal choices of an individual such as their physical appearance or their way of living are control by an authoritarian state.
Fend for yourself or die is the common element found in dystopian fiction. The citizens or the characters living in a dystopian world often have to survive on their own in between the ruins, destructed environment, collapsed society, inhabitable places, powerful and oppressive dictators, etc. The quest for survival is prominent in dystopian fiction.
Jeanne DuPrau’s The City of Ember tells the story of a post-apocalyptic underground city called Ember, where a group of teenagers living in the place is trying to find a way out to reach the outside world as the underground city which was made for survival for humans is now running out of food and the light system of the place is collapsing which too will soon put the whole Ember into darkness.
Other Popular Examples-
- Lord of the Flies by William Golding
- The Maze Runner by James Dashner
- The Running Man by Stephen King
Want to learn more about dystopian fiction?, Then do watch the below video by TED-Ed on “How to Recognize a Dystopia”.
Examples of Dystopian Fiction in Literature-
BY Ray Bradbury
The Handmaid’s Tale
By Margaret Atwood
The Hunger Games
By Suzanne Collins
By Lois Lowry
Lord of the Flies
By William Golding
By John Lanchester
The Maze Runner
By James Dashner
Brave New World
By Aldous Huxley
By Emily St. John Mandel
The Time Machine
By H.G Wells
Want to know more about dystopian fiction then read this article on Masterclass explaining more about the genre.